Citation: Panasonic’s Si-alloy anode technology to offer 30% increase in battery capacity (2010, March 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-03-panasonic-si-alloy-anode-technology-battery.html Increasing Electric Car Battery Performance This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Namely, the batteries, which measure 18mm in diameter and 65 mm in length, will offer a 4.0Ah capacity – that’s almost 30% higher than the largest capacity (3.1Ah) of today’s batteries of the same size. Panasonic plans to use the batteries primarily in notebook PCs, in which the Si-alloy anode makes it possible to cut the volume of a standard notebook PC battery pack by about half. Panasonic also hinted at using the batteries in vehicles in the future, although the battery’s weight will have to be reduced. Si-alloy’s attraction lies in its high theoretical capacity, which is at least 10 times greater than the capacity of graphite. However, one of the greatest challenges in developing Si-alloy-anode batteries is increasing their short charge/discharge cycle lifetime. During charge and discharge, the batteries have a large volumetric change of about 400%, which decreases their lifetime. With improved fabrication techniques and other modifications, Panasonic claims to have reduced the deterioration caused by the volumetric change. The company says that its Si-alloy-anode batteries can still maintain at least 80% capacity after 500 charge/discharge cycles. As the tech news site Nikkei notes, Panasonic’s commercial launch should further accelerate the Si-alloy development competition. Si-alloy anodes could accelerate the rate of increase of battery capacity. Capacity has been increasing at about 11% annually until now, but this new development represents an annual increase of 18%. Credit: Panasonic. More information: via: Nikkei Electronics © 2010 PhysOrg.com Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — One promising modification to next-generation rechargeable Li-ion batteries involves using Si-alloy anodes instead of graphite, which is currently the most common anode material. Many battery manufacturers are developing Si-alloy anodes, with Hitachi Maxell having previously announced plans to begin volume production by the end of fiscal 2009. Now, with its announcement of beginning volume production in 2012, Panasonic is the first company to reveal specifications of its Si-alloy anode product.
(Phys.org) —”If we want to exploit a rigorously hardened and tested type of computing system or networks of this type of computing system, we have to break new ground. Covert channels are communication channels utilizing means for communications that have not been designed for communication at all.” So begins a bracing paper published last month in the Journal of Communications. Titled “On Covert Acoustical Mesh Networks in Air,” the paper discusses devices that can support stealthy communication preventing immediate detection of the covert channels. The authors, Michael Hanspach and Michael Goetz, are research associates at the Fraunhofer Institute for Communication, Information Processing and Ergonomy (FKIE), in Wachtberg, Germany. Explore further More information: Research paper: On Covert Acoustical Mesh Networks in Air, www.jocm.us/index.php?a=show&catid=124&id=600 The authors warned that “Acoustical networking as a covert communication technology is a considerable threat to computer security and might even break the security goals of high assurance computing systems based on formally veriﬁed micro kernels that did not consider acoustical networking in their security concept.” Researchers in the past have described acoustic wave propagation used in underwater setups but the authors in their research did something different. “The underlying network stack is based on a communication system that was originally designed for robust underwater communication. We adapt the communication system to implement covert and stealthy communications by utilizing the near ultrasonic frequency range. We further demonstrate how the scenario of covert acoustical communication over the air medium can be extended to multi-hop communications and even to wireless mesh networks.”The authors showed that establishing covert acoustical mesh networks in air is feasible in setups with commonly available business laptops. (The authors noted that a covert acoustical mesh network can be conceived as a botnet or malnet that is accessible via nearfield audio communications.) For their experimental setup, they used five laptops as the mesh network participants. They installed Debian 7.1 on each laptop. Commenting on their work, Dan Goodin of Ars Technica said the new research shows that “high-frequency networking is easily within the grasp of today’s malware.” In an email, Hanspach said that commonly available laptops can communicate over their internal speakers and microphones, and form a covert acoustical mesh network. Over that network, “information can travel over multiple hops of infected nodes, connecting completely isolated computing systems and networks (e.g., the internet) to each other.”The authors, in their paper, also discussed countermeasures against covert acoustical mesh networks. These include the use of lowpass filtering in computing systems and a host-based intrusion detection system for analyzing audio input and output to detect irregularities. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Scenario for a multi-hop acoustical keylogger. Credit: Michael Hanspach and Michael Goetz Research finds new channels to trigger mobile malware Citation: Authors explore security threat of covert acoustical mesh networks in air (2013, December 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-12-authors-explore-threat-covert-acoustical.html © 2013 Phys.org
Citation: End-Permian mass extinction may have been driven by an ocean teeming with life (2015, August 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-08-end-permian-mass-extinction-driven-ocean.html Scientists have speculated that during the Permian period, venting of oceanic hydrogen sulfide gas killed off most eukaryotes and allowed oceanic prokaryotes to flourish. An international collaborative of researchers has conducted an analysis of the chemistry embedded in oceanic geologic formations, providing new geochemical evidence for this theory. The study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, links the end-Permian mass extinction event with climate change, geologic weathering, and widespread marine anoxia as a result of biogeochemical sulfur and carbon cycles.The reduction of sulfates in the ocean by microbes is an important pillar of the sulfur cycle. Most of the hydrogen sulfide in the ocean is reoxidized, with a fraction buried in sediment. Release from the sediment is another important factor, affecting sulfide formation and reactive iron availability. A notable increase in hydrogen sulfide would have affected the oceanic environment in a host of complex ways, creating major changes in biodiversity.The current study demonstrates successive enhanced organic matter degradation by microbial sulfate reduction. This produces hydrogen sulfide, which is toxic for most eukaryotes, killing them by interfering with mitochondrial energy production. Rather than a so-called “Strangelove” ocean in which all life dies off, the study proposes a huge reduction of species richness—a decline in marine biodiversity of around 80 percent. Carbonate-associated sulfate isotope data compiled by the researchers demonstrates that widespread euxenic zones resulted in sulfide toxicity, driving the marine biodiversity loss during this period. Under low competition pressure, prokaryotic life rapidly occupied the resulting vacant ecospaces. It’s a remarkable portrait of biological productivity that contradicts the idea of an entirely dead ocean. The researchers note that this scenario also reinforces the idea that life forms influence seawater chemistry. The authors write, “This study also emphasizes that, besides the property of organisms to construct a habitable planet, they can also act as a catalyst for destruction,” noting that marine life would have been quite different with the flourishing of prokaryotes.Geologic data from the Early Triassic that followed records increased sequestration of sulfur sourced from pyrite owing to the lack of eukaryotic organisms that would have irrigated oceanic sediments with O2 via burrowing. These and other processes generated a negative feedback loop of the carbon cycle in which enhanced production and sequestration of organic carbon was stimulated by global warming and rates of chemical weathering. “The prolonged disturbance after the end-Permian mass extinction contradicts a fast return (<100 ky) to predisturbance climate and carbon cycle," the authors note.The authors conclude that post-extinction marine prokaryote domination, particularly the sulfate-reducing microbes, might have exerted enormous influence on the carbon cycle in the Early Triassic, affecting marine conditions and global climate, preventing the planet's recovery for a long period of time. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. An isotopic analysis of two mass extinction events Stratigraphy and geography. Credit: PNAS 2015 ; published ahead of print August 3, 2015, doi:10.1073/pnas.1503755112
© 2017 Phys.org One of the types of pollutants emitted by cars and trucks is nitrogen oxides (NOx), in particular NO2 and nitric oxide (NO). These pollutants have been in the news in Europe over the past couple of decades because many truck and car owners have chosen to switch to vehicles powered by diesel fuel, which costs less than gasoline—but such vehicles also emit more NOx. To combat air pollution, officials in Europe and the U.K have enacted emissions standards that have resulted in less NOx emitted into the atmosphere. But most such emissions have applied only to NO2, which has muddied the standards. Making things ever murkier—such standards have been based on the percentage of NO2 in total NOx emissions. This is because not only do vehicles emit NO2 directly, but NO turns into NO2 over time once released into the air. Now, it appears that the percentages that officials have been using to set their standards has been wrong.To get an accurate measurement of the true percentage of NO2 in the NOx being emitted by vehicles, the researchers analyzed data from roadside monitors across Europe. In looking at the data, they found that NO2 percentages had risen, as expected, during the period 1995 to 2010 (as people converted to diesel) but then as emissions regulations came into effect, the percentage of NO2 leveled off and has remained at those levels ever since. These levels, the researchers note, are roughly half of what is described by air quality policy, which suggests Europe may reach mandated levels sooner than thought. Gentner and Fulizi Xiong suggest the group’s finding could have also implications for developing nations as well because consumers there tend to buy used diesel vehicles from Europe. 5,000 ‘Dieselgate’ deaths in Europe per year: study Credit: CC0 Public Domain This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers at the University of York in the U.K. has found that the proportion of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in nitrogen oxides in European traffic emissions is smaller than has been thought. In their paper published in the journal Nature Geoscience, the group describes analyzing data from roadside monitors over the course of many years and what they found by doing so. Drew Gentner and Fulizi Xiong with Yale University offer a News and Views perspective on the work done by the team in the same journal issue and suggest that the team’s findings could have implications for air pollution standards organizations in many more places than just Europe. Journal information: Nature Geoscience More information: Stuart K. Grange et al. Lower vehicular primary emissions of NO2 in Europe than assumed in policy projections, Nature Geoscience (2017). DOI: 10.1038/s41561-017-0009-0AbstractMany European countries do not meet legal air quality standards for ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) near roads; a problem that has been forecasted to persist to 2030. Although European air quality standards regulate NO2 concentrations, emissions standards for new vehicles instead set limits for NOx —the combination of nitric oxide (NO) and NO2. From around 1990 onwards, the total emissions of NOx declined significantly in Europe, but roadside concentrations of NO2—a regulated species—declined much less than expected. This discrepancy has been attributed largely to the increasing usage of diesel vehicles in Europe and more directly emitted tailpipe NO2. Here we apply a data-filtering technique to 130 million hourly measurements of NOx , NO2 and ozone (O3) from roadside monitoring stations across 61 urban areas in Europe over the period 1990–2015 to estimate the continent-wide trends of directly emitted NO2. We find that the ratio of NO2 to NOx emissions increased from 1995 to around 2010 but has since stabilized at a level that is substantially lower than is assumed in some key emissions inventories. The proportion of NO x now being emitted directly from road transport as NO2 is up to a factor of two smaller than the estimates used in policy projections. We therefore conclude that there may be a faster attainment of roadside NO2 air quality standards across Europe than is currently expected. Citation: Study of European historical data suggests proportion of NO2 in NOx emissions smaller than thought (2017, November 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-11-european-historical-proportion-no2-nox.html Explore further
Citation: Warped diffusive radio halo detected around the galaxy NGC 4565 (2019, July 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-07-warped-diffusive-radio-halo-galaxy.html Using the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR), astronomers have discovered a diffuse radio halo around the spiral galaxy NGC 4565. The finding, reported in a paper published July 16 on the arXiv pre-print server, could shed more light on the nature of NGC 4565, disclosing important insights about star-forming activity and the distribution of cosmic-ray electrons in this galaxy. Radio haloes are commonly observed around late-type spiral galaxies seen in an edge-on orientation. Studies show that the emission in radio halos is dominated by the non-thermal radio continuum component, indicative of cosmic ray electrons (CRe) and magnetic fields.Very little is known about the transport of cosmic rays in galaxies other than Milky Way. Low-frequency radio continuum observations have the potential to change this. They allow to investigate the oldest CRe far away from star formation sites in the halos of galaxies.So a team of astronomers led by Volker Heesen of University of Hamburg in Germany used LOFAR to conduct deep, low-frequency (144 MHz) observations of NGC 4565. Located about 38.8 million light years away, the target is a late-type spiral galaxy at an almost edge-on orientation. It is a quiescent galaxy with a low star-formation rate and an average mass surface density.”We have observed the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 4565 with LOFAR at 144 MHz in the radio continuum to measure the distribution of CRe and magnetic fields,” the astronomers wrote in the paper.During the observations, the astronomers detected a warp in the radio continuum of NGC 4565 that is reminiscent of a neutral hydrogen line (HI) warp and identifying a slight flaring of the galaxy’s radio halo. The researchers assume that this flaring is caused by the warp as the vertical intensity profiles are asymmetric, which is in agreement with the warp. According to the study, a minimum age for the warp was estimated at approximately 130 million years. This is the spectral age of the galaxy’s CRe, during which they are transported into the warp.Taking into account the results, the astronomers concluded that the NGC 4565 may be in the aftermath of a period with more intense star formation. They added that the galaxy has a relatively old population of CRe that has slowly diffused away from the star-forming disc.”The weak outflow that may be seen at higher frequencies was therefore probably stronger in the past, which explains the diffusive low-frequency radio halo,” the scientists wrote.Emphasizing that NGC 4565 could be in transition from an outflow- to an inflow-dominated phase, the researchers noted that this could explain why it behaves differently to NGC 7462, the only other galaxy in which they have detected a diffuse radio halo. They added that their research proves the significance of LOFAR observations for improving the understanding of cosmic rays and galaxy evolution. Hubble sees the needle galaxy, edge-on and up close Explore further © 2019 Science X Network NGC 4565: non-thermal radio spectral index between 144 (LOFAR) and 1570 MHz (JVLA) at 20 arcsec FWHM resolution. The major axis has been rotated so that it is horizontal. The size of the synthesised beam is shown in the bottom left corner. Image credit: Heesen et al., 2019. More information: Warped diffusive radio halo around the quiescent spiral edge-on galaxy NGC 4565, arXiv:1907.07076 arxiv.org/abs/1907.07076 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Time to step out and witness some extraordinary work by cluster of artists which is being displayed in the city. The group exhibition titled Spring 2014 showcase work of 21 women artists from different parts of India. All the artists have moved beyond oil paint on canvas or acrylics and used mediums such as gold leaf, plastic waste, tie and dye with embroidery among others, to message their concerns and illuminate the world of pictorial art with insightful inputs. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The feminine form of Varsha Kharatmal’s, in vivid colours elaborate ornamentation, celebrate the joy of femininity, while the evocative self-portraits of Swapnil Srivastava emphasise the intensity of today’s women as a narrative in muted tones, and defined spaces, without being dark and oppressive. Motherly concerns, embodied through the Kaushalya-Rama form, is given resurgence in the colourful concepts of Neeta Singh, and the protective tendencies of women are imaginatively wrapped in the depictions of Balwinder Tanwar, who articulates her idea through a pair of symbolic hands. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe graphic precision of Shruti Jain’s expressions incorporate spruce looks with intelligent composition whereas the deceptively simple mythical take on the Devi, as womanly strength behind the Purush concept acquires sophisticated aesthetic with Ritu Chopra.The work of Minal Rajurkar Shinde shows feline-canine-faced beings. Fertility finds adequate representation in the work of Nandini Pantawane, synchronising nature and women artistically. At one level starkly human and at another mythical, the etchings of Tejaswini Sonawane have an allegorical content expressed through otherworldly creatures and dominating postures. Compositional cohesiveness in Seema Gondane’s etchings have a powerful philosophy with the charming mesh of the whole uniting into a letter of close bonding. Rashmi Bawankar’s work comes with a mythical presence hovering above cityscapes, in a realm away from the grip of daily lives. The content of Rashmi Kachewar’s work surprises our imagination by its concentrated mass of form and empty spaces. Smita Kinkale uses solid forms like rubble and seeds to colour a distinct parallel geometry. Ashvini Jadhav, has patience, serenity and abstractions acquiresd into a fluid mass shown in her work.Viewing the colourful compositions of Jasminder Kaur in cocooned centric spaces, speaks of energies contained in a boundary, offset with a smart colour palette. Chitralekha Singh’s work celebrates the rhythm of life through a unique form. The tranquility of water is explored by Shyamali Paul who uplifts her lotus form from the swamp into a jewel effect. Alka Brushundi’s new approach to Tanjore art, embellishes its characteristics through unique placements and related subtleties.Where: Pearl Art Gallery, New Friends Colony, When: 14 April-10 May Timings: 11am-7pm (Mon to Sat) (Sunday by appointment only)
The advertorial campaign done by Fusion Advertising on Voluntary Compliance Encouragement scheme (VCES), for the Central Board of Excise and Customs has won two of the most prestigious awards in the Ink Awards for Excellence in Newspaper Advertising viz.The Best Direct Response National Award is for effectiveness in communications . The eminent jury was of the opinion that the engagement campaign got into the shoes of the target audience engaged them and worked wonders. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The Best Copywriting Award which is significant as it is for copywriting across all categories-FMCG, Consumer durables, F & B, I.T, Retail, Telecom, Alok Jha, Additional Commissioner, Directorate of Publicity and Public Relations, CBEC and Shyam Bhargava, Managing Director, Fusion Advertising Services received the awards. They thanked the people and the Service Tax team for going ahead with the unconventional ideas. And added that without their approval, we could not have got the awards.
The solo exhibition titled We are made of stars by Sabya Sachi Ghosh depicts the primordial nature of creation and a creative pictorial depiction of the universe. This exhibition that kicks off today is inspired by the resplendent starry sky on a moonless night. The theme of time travel is also touched upon. The works tries to bring about a feeling of an unbroken connection with time, since the moment of creation till out present state of its realisation. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’ We are all made of stardust. This statement is very poetic and has a tinge of a primordial nostalgia attached to this feeling. The search for the reasons behind our creation ultimately takes us to the very beginning of time. Rational explanations are then replaced with metaphysical definitions that aim to quench our longing to know the truth behind the creation of our universe. Religion in its own narrow way tries to convey a meaning that is very self oriented in a karmic manner. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe artist quotes, “When I gaze at stars twinkling in the night sky, I grasp the vastness of space and conceive of time as if it were matter and very tangible. My mind moves forward and backwards and is logical enough to haggle with a vegetable vendor. I am here stuck with this question; when we are capable of great thoughts why do we indulge in narrow selfish pursuits? Perhaps these ‘narrow selfish pursuits’ are our ways of preserving and continuing the progress of our species. I am not certain but for the lack of better ways we are as we appear to be.”When: January 23 to 29 Where: Open palm court Gallery, India Habitat Centre Timing: 10 am – 8 pm