Tag: 苏州楼凤

Will Genetics Be Neo-Darwinism’s Downfall?

first_imgThe Institute for Creation Research is gearing up for a multi-year GENE project to look for evidence for design (and against evolution) in the genome.  They may not need to work very hard.  Secular scientists, by continuing to find things not all that helpful for neo-Darwinism, are doing yeoman’s work for them.    While the few pro-evolutionary articles usually focus on mere sources of variation in the genome as fodder for natural selection (such as this Molecular Biology and Evolution paper on retrotransposons), or try to infer phylogeny by molecular comparisons, they usually do not attempt to apply the variations to actual functions except at a trivial level (see 04/06/2006).  Most genetics papers, by contrast, are finding degrees of order, regulation and coordinated action in the cell that challenge gradualistic explanations.  Here are some examples from the past two months:Rapid Gradualism?  New Scientist reported that many human genes must have “evolved recently” – even as recently as within the last 15,000 years.  While some of the 700-odd genes they studied, they claim, appear to have been targets of natural selection after the human line diverged millions of years ago, “some of the newly identified genes fall into categories not previously known to be targets of selection in the human lineage, such as those involved in metabolism of carbohydrates and fatty acids.”  (Ker Than at Live Science took this to mean humans are still evolving.)Transcript Complexity:  PLoS Genetics had a special issue about the complexity of the “transcriptome,” the body of all transcribed DNA.  The lead article’s teaser sounds pretty dramatic:Besides revealing staggering complexity, analysis of this collection is providing an increasing number of novel mRNA classes, expressed pseudogenes, and bona fide noncoding variants of protein-coding genes.  In addition, new types of regulatory logic have emerged, including sense-antisense mechanisms of RNA regulation.  This high-resolution cDNA collection and its analysis represent an important world resource for discovery, and demonstrate the value of large-scale transcriptome approaches towards understanding genome function.After the human genome was deciphered, scientists were puzzled by the seeming small number of genes – about 30,000.  Now, it appears that the exons of genes can be assembled and reassembled in a modular way by alternative gene splicing (09/23/2005), yielding many protein variants from one gene.  Not only that, the DNA “negative” on the opposite (antisense) strand can play a role in regulating the gene.  These articles speak as if a whole new world of complexity is coming to light.Who Regulates the Regulators?  Nature March 23 reported on important pathways that regulate the fate of RNA transcripts of genes.  David Tollervey wrote in the introduction,Cells alter their rates of mRNA transcription to change mRNA levels, and so rates of protein synthesis, in response to many stimuli.  To adjust mRNA levels, cells must be able to rapidly get rid of normal mRNAs that were previously synthesized (turnover).  In fact, different mRNAs differ radically in their rates of degradation, and this is subject to both metabolic and developmental regulation.  In addition, cells must guard against the synthesis of abnormal mRNAs (surveillance), which can produce defective, potentially toxic, protein products.The mechanisms described in the article, including “go/no-go” checkpoints unveil a higher level of complexity beyond the information contained in the genes themselves.Ring Job:  The copies during cell division must be accurate.  Many protein parts cooperate to ensure high levels of quality control.  Nature reported March 23 on a discovery of a ring that slides along the microtubules in the all-important stage of separation of the paired chromosomes.High Fidelity Proofreading:  Albertson and Preston talked about quality control of the DNA copying process in an article in Current Biology March 23:Proofreading is the primary guardian of DNA polymerase fidelity.  New work has revealed that polymerases with intrinsic proofreading activity may cooperate with non-proofreading polymerases to ensure faithful DNA replication.This means that some polymerases (copy machines) have better fidelity than others, but they cooperate to ensure a precision product.  A low-fidelity machine might be necessary to get past a bad break, for instance – like when a heftier wrench is needed (09/19/2005).  How good is the system?  Orders of magnitude better than a human copyist:Normal cells replicate their DNA with remarkable fidelity, accumulating less than one mutation per genome per cell division.  It is estimated that replicative DNA polymerases make errors approximately once every 104-105 nucleotides polymerized.  Thus, each time a mammalian cell divides approximately 100,000 polymerase errors occur, and these must be corrected at near 100% efficiency to avoid deleterious mutations.  This is accomplished through the combined actions of… exonucleolytic proofreading and post-replication mismatch repair.New Uses for Junk:  “Just because we don’t know what it does, doesn’t mean it’s really junk,” said Christina Cheng of non-coding DNA (U of Illinois) in an interview for Radio Netherlands.  Her work has found that arctic cod produce antifreeze proteins (05/13/2004) from non-gene regions of DNA, “a gene that appears to have evolved [sic] out of this DNA that supposedly serves no purpose.”  Yet “Preserving this rubbish [sic] seems an inefficient use of time and resources.  Evolutionary pressures [sic] should favour creatures with less junk DNA” said author Marnie Chesterton.  “So its conservation may be because it has functions that we don’t yet know.”  Cheng said, “conventional thinking assumes that new genes must come from pre-existing ones because the probability of a random stretch of DNA somehow becoming a functional gene is very low if not nil.” (see online book).No More Mr. Simple Guy:  Embley and Martin in Nature March 30 had some words for those who tell simplistic tales about an ancient prokaryote being co-opted as a mitochondrion in the first primitive eukaryote (see 08/06/2004):The idea that some eukaryotes primitively lacked mitochondria and were true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition was an exciting prospect.  It spawned major advances in understanding anaerobic and parasitic eukaryotes and those with previously overlooked mitochondria.  But the evolutionary gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is now deeper, and the nature of the host that acquired the mitochondrion more obscure, than ever before.Modular Programming:  An article in Nature March 30 by 37 European scientists found an exquisite example of modular programming – in yeast.  They even spoke machine language:The richness of the data set enabled a de novo characterization of the composition and organization of the cellular machinery.  The ensemble of cellular proteins partitions into 491 complexes, of which 257 are novel, that differentially combine with additional attachment proteins or protein modules to enable a diversification of potential functions.  Support for this modular organization of the proteome comes from integration with available data on expression, localization, function, evolutionary conservation, protein structure and binary interactions.  This study provides the largest collection of physically determined eukaryotic cellular machines so far and a platform for biological data integration and modelling.Question is, what evolutionist would want to model 257 novel proteins and 491 complexes, all tightly regulated and “evolutionarily conserved” (i.e., unevolved)?Pas de Deux:  We know that we have two copies of each gene, one from the father and one from the mother, but which copy leads and which follows?  As in marriage, this process is surprisingly complicated.  Spilianakis and Flavell explored this important question in a Perspectives article in Science April 14.  They showed how the dance involves the help of many servants:The genetic information of higher organisms is encoded in DNA that is not randomly dispersed within the cell nucleus, but is organized with nucleoproteins into different kinds of chromatin, the building blocks of the chromosomes.  Each chromosome resides in a specific region of the nucleus when the cell is not undergoing cell division, and usually genes that are actively being expressed loop out from their condensed chromatin territory and localize to a region of transcriptional activity.  These “transcription factory” areas are thus abundant with protein factors that initiate and regulate gene expression.The dance gets really wild, but not chaotic, when a gene on one chromosome is regulated by factors on another chromosome.The Parallel Universe of RNA:  The title of this article in PNAS hints at previously-unknown complexity: “Short blocks from the noncoding parts of the human genome have instances within nearly all known genes and relate to biological processes.”  This article was discussed in more detail here 04/27; see also the 09/08/2005 entry.Guardian Spirits:  In today’s Nature (May 4), Paul Megee titled an article, “Molecular biology: Chromosome guardians on duty.”  He begins, “Curiously, in cell division the proper separation of chromosomes into daughter cells needs set periods when they are stuck together.  So how do they come apart at the right time and place?  Their ‘guardian spirits’ intercede.”  Reminding the reader of the importance of high fidelity in cell division, he discusses work by Japanese scientists who “describe how proteins known as shugoshins – Japanese for ‘guardian spirits’ – and an associated regulatory enzyme temporally and spatially control the removal of cohesins from chromosomes.”  Cohesins keep the chromosomes together while they line up on the spindle, but need to be broken at the right time (03/04/2004) in a coordinated way – thanks to their guardian spirits.These are just samples pouring out of the secular literature on genomics.  Clearly, a great deal more choreographed complexity is being found in the nucleus than Watson and Crick could have imagined when the genetic code first began to be deciphered.  Perhaps creationists will need to do little more than compile and cite.Darwinists are fond of storytelling with glittering generalities.  When challenged, they retreat into accusations that anything other than 100% pure materialistic Darwinism is religion, not science, and use other shifty-feet tactics.  The answer is to pile on the evidence.  These articles are the tip of a truckload of data-rich, fact-filled laboratory studies that shout design instead of evolution.  Let’s rid secular science of its bad storytelling habit, and let the evidence speak for itself.   The Darwinists are sliding downhill with an avalanche of data racing down against them.  Perhaps a better cartoon of their predicament is to picture Wiley Coyote hanging by his fingers on a cliff.  Jonathan Wells, by debunking the icons of evolution, is like the Road Runner lifting Mr. Coyote’s fingers one at a time, while the genetic evidence is like Tweety Bird simultaneously piling weights on his feet.  Pretty soon he fall down go boom.(Visited 12 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Soybean population recommendations for later planting

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest As the latest Crop Progress Report showed, there is still some meat on the bone for corn and soybean planting in Ohio. Beck’s PFR Agronomist for Ohio, Alexandra Knight, says we are still within the window of planting both crops, but has some recommendations for the later planted soybean fields. The Ohio Ag Net’s Ty Higgins has more.last_img

9 months agoMan Utd leave Alexis at home for Spurs trip

first_imgAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Man Utd leave Alexis at home for Spurs tripby Paul Vegas9 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveAlexis Sanchez is out of Manchester United’s squad for the trip to Tottenham.The Manchester Evening News says Sanchez was one of nine players missing from the United squad that travelled to London by train on Saturday.The Chilean limped out of his side’s 2-0 FA Cup win over Reading with a hamstring problem and doesn’t appear to have recovered in time.Chris Smalling, Eric Bailly, Antonio Valencia, Matteo Darmian and Marouane Fellaini were also missing.One man that has travelled is Paul Pogba. The Frenchman was initially a doubt for the fixture after picking up a knock against Reading. last_img

Mike Brey: “That Was A Big Time Win, Don’t Let Anybody Tell You That You Should Have Beaten Them By 50”

first_imgMike Brey speaks to Notre Dame after NCAA Tournament win.In Thursday’s first contest of the second round of the NCAA Tournament, No. 3 seed Notre Dame held off a wild rally from No. 14 seed Northeastern to prevail, 69-65. The Irish, more known for their offensive prowess, had to lock down defensively on the Huskies’ final possession to eke out the victory. Following the game, head coach Mike Brey kicked off his locker room speech by clarifying just how important a victory it was for the team.Here’s a clip from our locker room after our 2nd-round NCAA win. Stay tuned to @WatchND for full video. #NotDoneYet pic.twitter.com/5a1HuQW7Uz— Notre Dame MBB (@NDmbb) March 19, 2015Notre Dame has had a tough time advancing in the NCAA Tournament over the years, so this was a big hump for the program. How far can the Irish go?last_img

UGA Basketball Coach Mark Fox Will Join The Spike Squad For Saturday’s Football Game

first_imgGeorgia spike squad seen with basketball coach Mark Fox.georgia spike squad mark foxGeorgia basketball coach Mark Fox has always made it clear how much he supports the school’s football team. Saturday, he’ll be going all out, yet again, to help cheer on the Dawgs against SEC juggernaut Alabama.Friday, Fox, on Twitter, revealed that he’ll be joining the Spike Squad in the stands for the contest. The Spike Squad is notorious for wearing body paint and spiked shoulder pads to games.…& forgive me when I drip paint on you cause I’m #100%Dawg @UGASPIKESQUAD – I’m in! Time to GATA pic.twitter.com/ldchIG1e2q— Mark Fox (@coachmarkfox) October 2, 2015This isn’t the first time Fox has done this, and it probably won’t be the last. Very cool.last_img

Neil Patrick Harris Offers Fans A Chance At A Truly Fortunate Experience

first_imgNeil Patrick Harris and the American Theatre Wing announced this week that they are partnering with Prizeo, the online platform that democratizes giving, to offer the chance for one lucky fan to join Harris on set of his Netflix Original Series “A Series Of Unfortunate Events” in Vancouver, BC, this fall.Beginning today, Harris is inviting fans to visit prizeo.com/NPH and make a $10 donation to receive 100 entries for the grand-prize opportunity to join him in Vancouver this October, where they’ll meet on set of “A Series Of Unfortunate Events.” Roundtrip airfare and hotel accommodations for two are also included—a truly fortunate experience.The special sweepstakes benefits the American Theatre Wing, celebrating its centennial this year by reaffirming its mission to ensure that the next generation is on stage, behind the scenes and in the audience.“I am so proud to support my good friends at the American Theatre Wing,” says Neil Patrick Harris. “And I’m even more excited to have one ‘fortunate’ winner join me on set in Vancouver. Raising money for the Wing guarantees support for the next generation of theatre storytellers.”“Having hosted four Tony Awards and winning one himself, Neil is the true definition of a show man. We are thrilled that he is able to join in support of the Wing for our Centennial, with this once-in-a-lifetime opportunity,” said Heather Hitchens, President of the American Theatre Wing.“We are so excited to be partnering again with the American Theatre Wing, and now with Neil Patrick Harris” adds Jan Friedlander Svendsen, CMO of Charity Network. “After our successful Tony Awards campaign this Spring, we look forward to continuing to raise funds for this important organization—and one that is very near and dear to my heart as a Broadway fan.”Neil Patrick Harris’ Prizeo campaign runs from August 23 to September 26 at prizeo.com/NPH.last_img read more