SAN FRANCISCO — The Giants are so hot coming off a 40-run outburst during a four-game road winning streak they benched a hitter with a 10-game hitting streak Friday night.Donovan Solano, who stepped in at shortstop while Brandon Crawford recovered from a hamstring strain, hit .375 on the just concluded road trip and his 14-for-39 in his last 10 games — with at least one hit in each.With Crawford back in the lineup, Solano was back in his familiar utility role, backing up at both short and …
Evolutionary psychologists are not getting much respect these days. Some evolutionists, like Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin, criticized them for years. Now, a new book came out against them and Science gave it a good review.1 To turn a Darwinian phrase, reviewer Johan J. Bolhuis said that the field of evolutionary psychology is undergoing negative selection pressure. The book under review also turned a Darwinian phrase in its title, Evolutionary Psychology as Maladapted Psychology, by Robert C. Richardson, a philosopher of science. Bolhuis, a member of the Behavioral Biology Group at Utrecht University, tied this maligned field to Charles Darwin right in the first sentence: “As we approach the 150th anniversary of the publication of On the Origin of Species, the theory of evolution is still not without controversy in the popular domain.” It seemed logical to many to extend Darwin’s theory of evolution to cognition, “as Darwin himself did in The Descent of Man when he considered human characteristics such as morality or emotions to have been evolved.” Both the author and reviewer accept evolution, and assent to the claim that our “psychological capacities are evolved traits.” Nevertheless, they have problems seeing evolutionary psychology as a scientific enterprise. Its flaws include:Blind reasoning: It is questionable “whether particular human cognitive traits, such as language or human reasoning, can be seen as adaptations.”Tunnel vision: Evolutionary psychologists tend to see everything in selectionist terms. “The main problem with evolutionary psychology is that it usually does not consider alternative explanations but takes the assumption of adaptation through natural selection as given.”Blind zeal: Enthusiasm by the proponents of evolutionary psychology outruns their science. “Evolutionary psychologists often argue for their proposals with a zest and enthusiasm that seems to convey the message that we can only understand the human mind if we consider our evolutionary history.”Blind speculation: The inability to find evidence for that history renders evolutionary psychology little more than storytelling. For example, they say that human language evolved because of a functional demand in social groups. Richardson, however, claims “we simply lack the historical evidence for a reconstruction of the evolution of human cognition.”On this last point, Bolhuis wound up for a knockout punch:Richardson rightly suggests that paleontologists are unlikely to unearth the evidence that can inform us about the social structure of our ancestral communities. I think one can go a step further. Even if we would be able to muster the evidence needed for an evolutionary psychological analysis of human cognition, it would not tell us anything about our cognitive mechanisms. The study of evolution is concerned with a historical reconstruction of traits. It does not, and cannot, address the mechanisms that are involved in the human brain. Those fall within the domains of neuroscience and cognitive psychology. In that sense, evolutionary psychology will never succeed, because it attempts to explain mechanisms by appealing to the history of these mechanisms. To use the author’s words, “We might as well explain the structure of orchids in terms of their beauty.”Bolhuis ranked this book as excellent. Combining this book with David Buller’s 2005 critique Adapting Minds (see 04/28/2005), he said, “the two books are complementary, and together they constitute a formidable critique of evolutionary psychology.” Richardson in particular, he said in conclusion, “shows very clearly that attempts at reconstruction of our cognitive history amount to little more than ‘speculation disguised as results.’” Bolhuis joked that Richardson is piling on the “selection pressure” against evolutionary psychology. Presumably, he meant that Richardson did it intelligently by design.1. Johan J. Bolhuis, “Piling on the Selection Pressure,” Science, 6 June 2008: Vol. 320. no. 5881, p. 1293, DOI: 10.1126/science.1157403.This is great. Evolutionists are getting bold enough to criticize evolutionary psychologists in a pro-evolutionary science journal. Progress is being made. Now, all we have to do is point out to these people that the evolutionary biologists commit the same errors: assuming that adaptation implies evolution, refusing to consider alternative explanations, propounding their faith with zest and enthusiasm instead of evidence, telling stories about an inaccessible history, and disguising speculation as results. What’s the difference? If the evolutionists continue to work up the nerve to falsify each other, the whole Darwin castle might implode without an attack from outside. Future archaeologists can study the ruins and help students learn from history that bad ideas eventually collapse from within. Maybe the Darwin Bicentennial will turn out to be a moment of silence.(Visited 33 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
The Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technology Tags:#Amazon#Android#apps#mobile What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … Related Posts Role of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagement Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces sarah perez Last week, the International Game Developers Association (IGDA) issued a warning to mobile app developers regarding Amazon’s recently launched Appstore for Android. The message, simply put: don’t use it. According to the letter posted here on the IGDA website, the organization had “significant concerns” about the distribution terms, pricing policies and discounting practices Amazon used when selling developers’ apps.But after a clarification from Amazon which said the IGDA had referenced an older version of the developer agreement by mistake, many wrote off the whole situation as a simple “misunderstanding.” But that’s not the case, the IGDA now claims. “Amazon’s terms, as they currently stand, represent a threat to game developers,” reads the latest blog post from the organization.IGDA: We’re Still Not Impressed with Amazon’s TermsIn this new post, the IGDA says that, despite Amazon’s update, the majority of its concerns remain unaddressed. On Amazon’s Developer Blog, Amazon had explained that the document the IGDA referred to was out of date. It was just a simple accident, Amazon implied, because it had forgotten to update one of the versions it stored online on its Developer Portal website.The updated document now reflects the changes made to the agreement in November, Amazon said, including “that the definition of list price applies only to the apps current price on a similar store.”That’s not good enough, says the IGDA, mocking the retailer by saying how “pleased” it is that all versions on the Amazon website are now consistent. But the IGDA remains “unimpressed,” overall:Amazon is still reserving the right to pay developers just 20% of their minimum list price at any time, without notification or advance approval. Additionally, Amazon is still unilaterally preventing developers from ever making an exclusive promotional deal with another marketplace.In summary, Amazons terms still enable it to steeply discount a game developers content without permission a tactic Amazon could easily use to force game developers to absorb the cost for Amazon to compete with other appstores.We are not impressed with Amazons recent gesture, nor is this matter the result of a misunderstanding. We believe that Amazons terms, as they currently stand, represent a threat to game developers.Developer Response MutedFor what it’s worth, in our own ReadWriteMobile poll, we saw (as of time of writing) 41.67% of respondents agree that developers should indeed stay away from the Amazon Appstore. 34.03% disagree and 24.31% said they were unsure.The implication with this debate, as the IGDA points out, is that Amazon’s terms were designed with the betterment of Amazon in mind, not the developer community or even the Android platform itself. At present, Amazon seems most interested in drawing in users from other Android app stores, even Google’s official Android Market, through the use of promotions where paid apps are given away for free on a daily basis.For many developers, the power of Amazon has proved to be a major draw. As Applocious notes, highly popular titles including Angry Birds, Fruit Ninja and Doodle Jump are available now in Amazon’s store. But the article notes that for indie developers, “the lack of control can be frightening.”What’s interesting about this ongoing spat is what appears to be a general lack of media attention and developer outrage over the matter. Are developers simply unaware of the issues at hand? Do they just not care? Or do they actually believe that Amazon has the winning formula for app promotion and sales?
Assam Police averted a tragedy on Friday morning when its personnel detected and defused an explosive device planted inside a train during routine search after its arrival at the railway station in Guwahati.Police found the bomb kept inside an air bag from seat no. 22 of S5 coach during routine search of the Kolkata-Guwahati Kanchanjanga Express at the Guwahati Railway Station, sources said.They said after the bomb was found, all 1100 passengers inside the train were deboarded. “The train was checked thoroughly,” the sources said.Police said they recovered 4 kg explosive, 4 detonators and a time device from the bag at around 5.20 AM after the train arrived.”The programmable time device was found during routine check by police personnel. Every train which arrives at the Guwahati station is checked,” the sources said.- With PTI inputsFor more news on India, click here.For more news on Business, click here.For more news on Movies, click here.For more news on Sports, click here.
About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Man Utd leave Alexis at home for Spurs tripby Paul Vegas9 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveAlexis Sanchez is out of Manchester United’s squad for the trip to Tottenham.The Manchester Evening News says Sanchez was one of nine players missing from the United squad that travelled to London by train on Saturday.The Chilean limped out of his side’s 2-0 FA Cup win over Reading with a hamstring problem and doesn’t appear to have recovered in time.Chris Smalling, Eric Bailly, Antonio Valencia, Matteo Darmian and Marouane Fellaini were also missing.One man that has travelled is Paul Pogba. The Frenchman was initially a doubt for the fixture after picking up a knock against Reading.
Juventus veteran Mario Mandzukic still wants Man Utd moveby Paul Vegasa month agoSend to a friendShare the loveJuventus veteran Mario Mandzukic wants a Premier League transfer in January.Manchester United were close to signing the Croatia international during the summer – but Ed Woodward pulled the plug – thinking £14million was too much to pay for a 33-year-old.The Juventus striker has offers on the table from Qatar, where Al Rayyan are keen.However, Tuttosport claim Mandzukic is holding out for offers from England and with United’s striker crisis – Woodward could be forced to make a U-turn. TagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say